SUMMARY Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease caused by the John Cunningham virus (JCV).
Crossing Barriers: How JC Virus Crosses the Blood Brain Barrier and Induces Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Patients on Disease-Modifying Therapies.
Leishmania RNA Virus: Mere Endosymbiont or Major Player in Leishmania-Associated Disease?
SUMMARY Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. They are transmitted by the bites of infected sand flies and go on to infect host macrophages.
Bioengineering ZIKV-like Exosomes in the Treatment of Drug- Resistant Glioblastoma
SUMMARY Oncolytic viruses are becoming one of the most promising avenues of therapy against a diverse range of cancers due to inherent tumour specificity. Classically, the difficulty associated with the use of viruses for cancer treatment has been how to minimize off target effects.
Salivary Exosomal microRNAs: Discovery and Potential Biomarkers for Human Papillomavirus-Associated Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
SUMMARY Exosomes are small, membrane bound vesicles secreted by many types of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and have been found to contain various cargo, including microRNAs (miRNAs).
The War on Arboviruses: Leveraging Co-Infection Inhibition and Endogenous Viral Elements Towards Inhibiting Arbovirus Horizontal Transmission
SUMMARY Clinically significant arboviruses like dengue virus, zika virus, and chikungunya virus currently impose a major global health crisis due to their high frequency of transmission and from the lack of approved antivirals and vaccines against them.
Ebola Virus and Malaria Coinfection: How Infection with One Pathogen May Protect Against Another
SUMMARY Both malaria and Ebola virus have been the centre of global health care efforts in recent years, due to the massive ongoing disease burden of malaria and the largest Ebola outbreak in history in West Africa.
MERS-CoV: Identifying Viral and Host Factors Associated with Transmission, Pathogenesis, and Treatment Development
SUMMARY Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel betacoronavirus that is associated with a high mortality rate (~36%) and is endemic in the Middle East. Since 2012, there have been 2100 laboratory confirmed cases and 730 deaths associated with MERS-CoV in 27 countries.
A Cure for Cancer? The Therapeutic Potential of Combining Oncolytic Viruses and Chimeric Antigenic Receptor T-Cell Therapy
SUMMARY Cancer continues to be a devastating diagnosis. Fortunately, active research has developed and refined two cancer therapies: oncolytic virotherapy and the novel chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy.
Human Endogenous Retroviruses as Contributors of Exosomemediated Autoimmunity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
SUMMARY At least 8% of the human genome was formed by integration of retroviral DNA sequences. These sequences are remnants of ancient infections that have accumulated mutations over millions of years.
Targeting the Gut Microbiome in HIV/AIDS: New Therapeutic Opportunities
SUMMARY Despite major advances in HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART), complete elimination of the disease has not been achieved. Recently, the importance of the gutassociated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and the resident microbiota in HIV pathogenesis has been highlighted.